Barbarella came out in 1968 as a film and was directed by Roger Vadim. The movie’s theme is futuristic science fiction. It was a originally a comic book written by Jean Claude Forest, it reflected many of the issues circling in the sixties through imagery; more importantly the sexual revolution. “Pornographic representations of sexuality ranged from profound explorations of desire to highly stereotyped permutations of sexual positions.” Explained Jeffrey Escoffier in his article “The Sexual Revolution, 1960-1980” Jane Fonda played the main character named Barbarella. Barbarella was an earth space captain, who was sent on a mission to another world to retrieve scientist Durand Durand. He had created a weapon that the people of Earth were interested in because it could kill humans. While on this adventure Jane Fonda wore skimpy outfits that revealed her breast and highly sexualized her.  Later, it is revealed that this is not Jane Fonda sexualized, but this is a movie that embraces women and their sexuality.

Prior to landing on Tau Ceti’s 16th planet, it emphasized that people of earth no longer had intercourse to experience sex instead they drank a pill to essentially have sex. It is noted when she is rescued and is asked to have intercourse with a man she does not know how or what the man means because of the way women experienced sex on earth was different.

Barbarella after her 2nd intercourse with Pygar

In the next scene Barbarella is enlightened by the intercourse. Much like the counter culture of the sixties that expressed that sex was way for women to have control and power. It is also similar to what the Acid Tests showed people; a new way of experiencing the world. As Jeffrey Escoffier in”The Sexual Revolution, 1960-1980″ states, “Throughout this period [1960’s) young men and women engaged in their first acts of sexual intercourse at increasingly younger ages” (Escoffier). Women prior to the sixties would get married and only then intercourse was accepted. The sexual revolution is expressed when Barbarella fixes a angel named Pygar who cant fly, because he lost his inspiration, by having sex with him, then he is suddenly able to fly. Further, when she enters into the city the city is bleak and dead and conforming, which could be representing of people who were complacent with the government and approved the war and marriage before sex.

The parallelism of the way people viewed the government is expressed when Barbarella is captured by the black queen. The black queen explains to Barbarella what the matemos is; living energy liquid powered by evil thoughts, which allowed her to control and oppress the people of her kingdom. Much how people viewed the government that oppressed the minority citizens who were not complacent with the war. Further, Barbarella is captured and trapped when a guerrilla soldier saves her. This guerrilla soldier could be a reference to Vietnam warriors who considered themselves hippies along with the Pranksters, when they were dressed in military style and went to Washington, because they did not agree with the way their government was treating them. This Guerrilla man wants to experience what he believes to have heard the enlightened way of having sex; using the pill. Yet, when Barbarella uses the pill, mentioned earlier, Barbarella’s hair transforms into what the ideal woman of the fifties wore, whilethe guerrilla’s soldier’s face looks very satisfied and his hand remains in the air as if wanting more while barbarella is left unsatisfied. This could be symbolic men of oppressing women and their sexuality.

Barbarella experiencing sex through the use of the pill

At one-point Barbarella is stuck in the a room with the Matmos, who, according the black queen, devoured people. However, the Matmos is not able to devour Barbarella due to her innocence.  Durand Durand decides to kill Barbarella with a machine the weapon of mass destruction; what it did was to give people pleasure until they die. However, Barbarella’s sexual libido breaks the machine and is able to escape. It’s again paralleled with the sexual revolution happening in the sixties. “The women’s movement and changes in the understanding of female sexuality also played a central role in the sexual revolution.”(Escoffer).

Barbarella fighting the Sex Machine

Barbarella beating the sexual machine could be a clear link with the feminist movement and women owning their sexuality. 

When I first watched Barbarella I thought that this movie was a high end pornographic type movie. The plot of this movies called my attention and I couldn’t understand why Barbarella wore such revealing clothing, much less why her having sex and defeating the sex machine meant. After taking this class and reading about the sexual revolution, I realized how this movie emphasized women and their growing sexuality and fighting the oppression that women faced.






Escoffier, Jeffrey. “The Sexual Revolution, 1960-1980” 2004.



Public Enemy: Black Steel in the Hour of Chaos


Image result for public enemy

Public Enemy was a rap group of the late 1980’s, according to “Artist Biography by Stephen Thomas Erlewine  “for many [Public Enemy was] the definitive rap group of all time.  Further their Erlewine  states, “Public Enemy pioneered a variation of hardcore rap that was musically and politically revolutionary.”  it can be noted that they in fact were politically revolutionary with their lyrics. Through the music they “started their disruption by making music and creating spaces for themselves when everything around them suggested exclusion.”(287, Pough). In Public Enemy’s lyrics give reference to the sixties Black Panther’s Ten-Point Program drafted by Newton & Bobby Seale, more specifically number six which states “I think we should deal with Vietnam cause that’s going on and just say straight up – WE WANT ALL BLACK MEN TO BE EXEMPT FROM MILITARY SERVICE. How can you have a black man going over there to fight a yellow man for the white man who stole his land from the red man? That makes a nice rhyme but no political sense whatsoever.” When looking at the Public Enemy’s first  couple of stanzas they are very similar, “I got a letter from the government/ The other day/ I opened and read it/ It said they were suckers/They wanted me for their army or whatever/ Picture me given’ a damn, I said never/ Here is a land that never gave a damn/ About a brother like me and myself/ Because they/ never did/ I wasn’t wit’ it.” there is an emphasis here at what happened to African American’s in the sixties, they were asked to do something for a country that oppressed them.  Public Enemy, however, was very aware at the fact that White people and the government held the power, whilst it was also known that during the Vietnam War people who refused to participate in the war were considered enemies of the United States and were sent to prison, Public Enemy lyrics state, “but just that very minute/ It occurred to me/ The suckers had authority/ Cold sweatin’ as I dwell in my cell/ How long has it been?/ They got me sittin’ in the state pen”  referencing the Black Panther’s Ten Point Program Public Enemys state,”[t]they couldn’t understand that I’m a Black man/ And I could never be a veteran” he exemplifies that because he refused to go to war “the situation’s unreal/ I got a raw deal, so I’m goin’ for the steel” the steel being prison behind the metal bars. Pough explains, “[p]erhaps the most interesting way in which hip hop culture begins to show its sixties roots and indebtedness to the black power movement is in the black rhetorical qualities they share; which include the black rage that Gladney discusses in his work and messages and sayings from the Black Power movement sampled in rap songs.” Public Enemy also states “Four of us packed in a cell like slaves” in this lyric stanza Public Enemy comes to the present to emphasize that situations that people faced in the sixties of injustice that are still reflected today.  Public Enemy continues to concoct a way to escape the injustice, and as a result becomes fugitive from the law.



Creedence Clearwater Revival, Fortunate Son

Image result for protest 19sixties

Every time I see a movie that is based in the sixties or seventies you could hear Creedence Clearwater Revival in the background. I have heard it in from Girl Interrupted to Forest Gump we can hear remnants of this song, signaling what was taking place during that time. The song was released in September 1969, right in the middle of the Vietnam war. As we read, in Celebrity Culture and The American Dream by Karen Sternheimer, it was a time when youth were rebellious and did not want to conform to the war the way their parents had, patriotic and singing up, and they were nonconforming  to the standards the government set for them as well. Creedence Clearwater Revival’s Fortunate Son  song depicts a working class person who does not agree to go to to war due to the the injustices of the time such as class. the song dictates in its verse, “Some folks are born silver spoon in hand/Lord, don’t they help themselves, oh/  But when the taxman comes to the door/ Lord, the house looks like a rummage sale. They could be the government or the rich elite coming down to the working class and taking what little the have. The song further explains how the government and the elite are continuously sending people to the war or taking more from them with the following verse, “Some folks inherit star spangled eyes/ they send you down to war, Lord/ And when you ask them, ‘How much should we give?’/they only answer ‘More! More! More!'”  Thus explaining both the government’s drafting more and more young men for the war without consent. To further exemplify the song suggests that if working class men should go to war, then the first people to be asked to go should be government officials sons,  “It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I ain’t no senator’s son, son/ It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I ain’t no fortunate one, no” To further stretch the meaning behind the song, focusing on drafting sons, as in men only, is a signifier of gender discrimination of the time, where women could not do the same as men. The song does both signify the war while not entirely disagreeing with the war, just disagreeing on who they are sending out. “Some folks are born made to wave the flag/ they’re red, white and blue/ And when the band plays “Hail to the chief”/ they point the cannon at you, Lord” The problem is that they are indirectly pointing the gun at you men by sending them to a losing war in Vietnam while they tell their young that they are winning not losing; they were lying.





Starting at 0:21 and ending in 1:00  we can hear the music playing in the background.

starting at 1:13 ending at 1:31 we can hear the song playing

at 4:02 we can see toby’s discontentedness with the draft.




Acculturation or Appropriation


Traditional Mongolian royalty. Apparently this inspired the Naboo costumes in the Star Wars prequels.
Khalkha Mongol noblewoman (c. 1908)
Star Wars episode 1, Natalie Portman as Queen Pamde Amidala Senate outfit.

The race that is being portrayed by Natalie Portman in Star wars Episode 1 is of Mongolian noble women. “People have always  shared ideas and borrowed from one another, but appropriation is entirely different from borrowing or sharing because it involves the taking up and commodification of aesthetic, cultural, and, more recently, spiritual forms of a society”(Roots, 70). This could be exemplified by the wardrobe that Natalie Portman wore and the significance of the wardrobe. The wardrobe is significant to Mongolian women. It is most notable that the wardrobe could be representation of a woman in history. This woman Toregene ruled after her husband, son of Genghis Kahn, death. Madden Lee explains that “after Ogedei’s death in 1241, […] This [Mongolian] woman, Empress Regent Töregene essentially inherited the authority to administer, legislate and manage the largest empire in the world at that time” (Madden). This is impressive to their culture because it was mainly male dominated, and she was able to expand the Mongolian empire (Madden). This culture or this little piece of history could be the potential reason why the wardrobe was chosen for Queen Pamde Amidala when she was meeting the senate. The wardrobe could be a sign of power. “This new appreciation of cultural difference is all done with mirrors, however, and, as in the past, what is usually available are the morphological forms that connote difference, which is to say, alluring commodities- difference in effigy, as it were” (Roots,78). Although, it may seem that it is shown in appreciation of the culture of the Mongolians, it is not certain that it is something that they are acculturating or appropriating the culture. I have incorporated and seen these images of Pamde in Star Wars into my world. I watch the movies, and buy into the franchise of Star Wars. Star Wars has become a part of the tradition of the children in our family to watch and enjoy together.


Metropolis Silent Film


Metropolis was released in on January 10, 1927 in Germany where it premiered. This movie is a German movie directed by Fritz Lang and written by Thea Von Harbou. The main stars of the movie are Brigette Helm, Alfred Able and Gustav Fronhlic, Fritz Rasp. The film’s time is taking place in the year 2626  in a highly urban city, the city of lights, with sky scrapers and freeways run completely by machines that need to be tended to day and night by workers.metropolis.PNG The theme of this science fiction due to the advance machines and science experiments that were accomplished at the time. This film could be viewed through many lenses: Gender, sexuality, culture, time, location/geography, or identity. For this essay the lenses that will be used will be boundaries and borders. Boundaries and borders are usually things that restrict a mass of people; boundaries, borders, and location, and geography will be interpreted as social class stagnation or limitation. In this film there is a clear definition of lower class and upper class and this is a reflection of society in the united states and the world.

To add further context to this movie we will look at what the motivations of this movie could have been through looking at history at the time and place of the movie was first  released and where it was created. This movie took place right after World War I, post 1917. “In 1917, President Woodrow Wilson stands before Congress to ask to declare war against Germany” (Trinaphm, Group 5 WordPress). The late entry of the united states gave an advantage to the Allies. As a result, the Allies won. Consequently, Germany lost the world war. After the war, in 1920’s, during this time Germany had to pay other countries for repairs. In the film there is a city of lights and an underground city.underground.PNG The underground city keeps the lights running in the City of lights. This could be an indication of the discomfort that the German people felt toward The Treaties of Versailles. “Virtually all sections of German opinion denounced the treaty” (Tonget). When Germany failed to make a payment in 1923, the French and Belgium army marched in and took control of the Ruhr, a key industrial area of Germany “ (Tonge). Subsequently, “The City of lights” in the film could be a word play to Paris, France, since they had to pay the country back for repairs. The Germans most likely felt like the workers in the film, they kept working and paying off debt for repairs and not retaining of the hard-earned money; almost like slaves with no rest. There is a scene where the Freder, son of the most powerful man in metropolis, takes the place of a laborer and continues the laborerers’ work, during this time the son says to the abyss, “Ten hours father! When will they end?” (Metropolis). That could be a further encouragement of how the people of Germany felt.  To add to insult, in April of 1919 one US dollar was equal to 12 Marks (German currency) and by December 1923 4,200,000,000,000,000.00 Marks for one US dollar making it further difficult for the masses to attain money (Tonget).  Therefore, leaving Germany discouraged and tired.

epigram“The Mediator Between brain and hands must be the heart!” the epigram shown at the beginning of the movie is the expression about that defines the need to rid of boundaries and borders in social classes. The Boundaries and borders help define class in the movie and in the situations in the 1920’s particularly for Germany but expressed further to the United States. Prior to the United States entering the war “La Follette expressed to the president, [‘The poor, sir, who are the ones called upon to rot in the trenches, have no organized power, have no press to voice their will upon question of peace or war; but, oh, Mr. President, at some time they will be heard.’]”( (Trinaphm, Group 5 WordPress). Metropolis film further expresses this idea. The film is filled with imagery of the vast differences in social classes.  The upper social class having the sun and the sky  and women while the lower class had work. The upper social class wanting to maintain the lower class while the lower class wants “upward mobility” (celebrity culture).  In the film, Joh Freder, the most powerful man in metropolis, finds a woman speaking to the men about what seem to be revolts to the government quickly tries to sabotage the woman’s plan. He seeks the aid of a mad scientist who has his own lucrative plans. They abduct the girl and influence the masses to revolt in an aggressive manner to allow Joh Freder to use force upon the lower-class citizens. During this time Freder realized he is the mediator and falls in love with Maria. At the end of the film, when the lower-class’ underground home is destroyed and the children are saved, one of the workers tries to shake hands with Joh Freder and he negates the handshake so the worker becomes hurt and upset. Maria, the woman goes to Freder and explains that is the moment for him as the mediator to close the gap between the social classes.the mediator.PNG In the United States this could have been reflected through the “upward mobility” in the 1920’s. Karen Sternheimer in her book Celebrity Culture and the American Dream explains “by the mid 1920’s many in the working classes experienced modest upward mobility”(Sternheimer, 56). Depicting the lower class and the upper class having a shorter gap. Although, it is further from the truth Steimheimer explains “ [A] majority of Americans identify themselves as middle class, regardless of their income, and haave since the 1920’s. “(Sternheimer,15).



Lang, F. (Director). (1927). Metropolis [Video file]. Kino Lorber Edu. Retrieved July 18, 2018, from Kanopy.

Metropolis 1927 – Film Archive – Posters, Lobby Cards, Postcards.–metropolis–film-archive.jpg

Sternheimer, Karen. Celebrity Culture and the American Dream 2nd edition. 2015 Routledge.

Trinaphm, Group 5 WordPress “Woodrow wilson asks congress to declare war 1917, Senator Robert M La Follette passionately Dissents-1917”



the other images are from the film metropolis but I snipped and uploaded the images.


Hack # 2 Film Bodies

Resultado de imagen para the chapman report online free 

The Chapman Report by director George Cukor is a film of 1962, during the time of the women’s rights movement, that can be portrayed as a melodrama, horror, and pornography, this film follows four women who go to a social study of women and their sexuality the Doctors seem to be trying to normalize women having sexual encounters. Each woman is different from the others and they are all friends. Each woman follows their own trajectory and follows a path according to Linda William’s Film Bodies: Gender, Genre, and Excess of melodrama, horror, and hinting at pornography. This film also tends to portray women as household wives, some who are satisfied in their marriage and some who are not, and single women who had husbands before. The male men are portrayed as busy working husbands who do not take too much notice in their wives lives but love them.

Jane Fonda Cathleen bardey

Jane Fonda is Kathleen Barclay genre follows the anatomy of Melodrama. She is a woman who is a widow, in a flashback it shows Kathleen is speaking to her late husband. Her late husband is claiming that he has waited too long for sex and that she is just frigid, Kathleenr tries to explain that he needs to be more gentle and fails  which results in Fonda’s character e

rupting in a sob. According to Williams “We can identify melodrama’s pathos of the too late” (Williams, 10). In this instance, Fonda’s character was too late to have sex with her husband. Not only that but Fonda’s character is also controlled by her father in “parental melodrama”. They portray her as innocent while still having sex appeal, Fonda’s Character is usually found wearing white colored clothing that is a bit revealing, she is also usually seen in the light. While her late husband is seen as uncaring and cold. Later Kathleen is able to find herself but she encounters many more emotions before she does.

claire bloom, naomi shields

The next character in the film is portrayed in a horror genre. The horror genre is classified as the effect of the too early. Although this film portrayal does not go into the excessive showing  Claire bloom is Naomi Shields. Naomi is a divorcee who was divorced for her promiscuity. Naomi is confident and promiscuous to the point she constantly battling her sexual desires when she encounters the male. The male asks Naomi if “she lives alone” he begins to manhandle her, she is refusing with sounds of pleas the camera zooms in on her face to show discomfort and later pleasure at what she is feeling, but they are interrupted. She proceeds to meet with him upon her arrival she meets with him and have their sexual encounter. “[T]his surprise encounter too early often takes place at a moment of sexual anticipation when the female victim thinks she is about to meet her boyfriend or lover.” As she turns to leave his friends rape her. “The monster’s [in this case several monsters] violent attack on the female victim vividly enacts a symbolic castration which often functions as a kind of punishment for an ill-timed exhibition of sexual desire”(Williams, 11).The encounter between Naomi and the man was that of a horror film. During this scene the camera shows her struggling and zooming in on her face and her struggling pleas, this time she does not enjoy herself and it is evident on the screen. The next morning Naomi is Bruised, cut, and delirious. Giving the effect of Williams’ bodily excess of violence. The violence does not end there as Naomi proceeds to kill herself.

glynis johns, teresah harnish

Another female Teresa Harnish, Glynis Johns, is portrayed as happy wife. She then is turned into question whether her husband’s life and hers are normal. She decides to take a fling with a younger muscular man. The first time she encounters the young man she is fully clothes covering most of her skin, the second time they meet she is wearing a romper outfit a little more exposed, when she sets out to meet him she wears a very revealing bikini and finds he is not there. She proposes to him the next day the idea of painting him for money, later we come to realize that it is for sex and not painting. As the young man realizes this he becomes too rough with Teresa, hinting at something like horror and pornographic genres. When he agrees to have sex with her it becomes part of Williams’’ pornography’s “on time” temporary fantasy, however when the man becomes to rough it quickly turns into Williams’ horrors temporality fantasy of “too early”  and bodily excess of violence. She quickly returns home to her husband and is happy again her husband without any knowledge of this occurrence.

shelly winters, sarah garnell

Lastly, we have another married couple and a wife Sarah Garnell, Shelley Winters. This woman is portrayed as the happy wife, and quickly turns into a unhappy cheating wife, her husband is busy working and trusts her fully. She engages in the bodily excess of sex. The film does not show Sarah having sex, but they do show the promise of sex. She becomes highly attached to this man, and he proceeds to leave her. The genre for this character is of melodrama with a bit of pornography, while the affair was happening the temporality fantasy of “on time” was occurring along with seduction. However, when the affair is over, it turns into a melodrama with Sarah’s Bodily excess of tears and woe. The husband in this scene is seen as understanding and

loving as she returns to him after her rejection.

This film is interesting because it was during the women’s movement. This film portrays the beliefs of those times. Women were still seen as house wives and as needing men. The only women who were not married had already been married. Naomi was promiscuous and therefore shunned for her sexual desires.  While Kathleen was childlike and ended hinting that she was becoming more sexual and happy. This engulfs William’s “good” vs. “bad” girl. Although there was no monster coming out for Kathleen it could be seen as societal pressure was the monster and to a certain degree man as well.

It also revolutionary, in my opinion, because it showed that married women could be happily married or completely unsatisfied. While not so much for unmarried women, they seem to be miserable until in the arms of a man. With that being said, this film seemed to have tried to capture the attention of many men and  women. The women in the film had a lot of sex appeal and promise of sex, while having enough emotion to attract women’s attention.

Film: The Chapman Report (1962)

Director: George Cukor

Release date: November 11,1962

Actors/actresses: Shelley Winters, Jane Fonda, Claire Bloom Glynis John, Efrem Zimbalist jr.

Williams, Linda. Film Bodies: Gender, Genre, and Excess. Film Quarterly, Vol. 44, No. 4 (Summer, 1991), pp. 2-13



Image of Poster of the female actresses of The Chapman Report

self made collages from snip its from movie

Jane Fonda Cathleen bardeyclaire bloom, naomi shieldsglynis johns, teresah harnishshelly winters, sarah garnell

Hack 1 – Circus

Resultado de imagen para minorities in circus 1800

The Other in the circus and consequently in America were different than the norm. In the text Encountering the Other the author explains that the norm was set up by the majority, “Individuals within the dominant social group believe that they know what race and gender mean and what they have always meant.” The majority decide characteristics of other subcultures different from theirs. The majority then decided what and who the norm is; the norm being European Americans, immigrants from Europe with light skin.  The text, Encountering the Other, further explains that once the majority have decided that they are the people in power they would stay that way. “Fixity is precisely their strength: once established, the cultural categories lend stability and justification to profoundly unstable and contestable identities and relationships of power”(Walsh, 66).  That once they establish characteristics and Stereotypes of a subculture it is not argued with and they remained fixed as the power who pics and chooses. Encountering the Other further explains, “American intellectuals tended to focus and project most of those negative qualities on a single social group.” The first Other that was encountered was the Native American. They were treated as savages and were meant to give the Euroamericans a feeling of superiority of the group. The Circus Age explains that later that the circus allowed for a diverse culture to be present, however the workers did not feel necessarily welcome. “[The circus’] workers consciously felt they were a breed apart from the rest of society”(Circus Age, 10). Many people still did not agree with the idea of the Other and the Other knew about it, as a result they felt uneasy. So, “[the] Other [in the circus] may be marked by differences in race, gender, class, religion, ethnicity, or a combination of cultural categories.” (Walsh, 66).

The circus however fostered another addition a subculture of peculiar others, people who had either a unique ability or disability. The people who are classified as such were people who had abnormalities such as bearded women, Siamese twins, fat ladies, skeleton men, and “exotic people.” The circus performers “view[ed] their own physical limitations as an opportunity to make a living in society that might otherwise shun them(Circus Age, 27).

giphyAlthough many of the workers were ultimately happy with the amount of money they could make the  “Euroamerican spectators came, in part, to laugh at what they ostensibly were not: preindustrial, slow, bumbling, naïve, or ‘savage’” (Circus Age, 26).  Which conveys the image that people from the circus were indeed treated different from the Majority.

Resultado de imagen para audience in circus 1800

Amongst each other “The social structure of the railroad circus was built upon an occupational hierarchy akin to a caste system, in which musicians ate and slept with musicians, and candy “butchers” with candy butchers” (Circus age, 62).  The circus performers were not treated differently amongst each other due to their abilities/disabilities, but rather their success in bringing in audiences and their roles in the circus. The circus performers “referred to non-circus folk as ‘outsiders, ‘gillies’, or ‘rubes, and frequently mentioned in their autobiographies that they were only comfortable with other show folk” (Circus Age, 72).




I made this Giph to represent the masses laughing at circus performers.

Dumbo GIF - Find & Share on GIPHY

Image of Circus workers togehter

“The Rise and Fall of Circus Freakshows”

The circus performers together for a picture.

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