Extra credit Hack; The 1960s and 1970s

There were a lot of changes in the 1970’s as some of the social movements that started in the 1960’s started to fade, and the focus of Americans were different struggles such as equal employment. 

The civil rights led by Martin Luther King 

Martin Luther King 

achieved a lot for African Americans; however, the community was still getting organized in many institutions like universities and social organizations. Higher education became important for the American culture in the 1970s, but the access to higher education was difficult for the cost and sometimes privileges for some groups. The Women’s movement changed focus to politics and important positions on institutions and factories. Some of the social problems that started in the 1960s remained the same. For example, the drug abuse, On October 27, 1970, Congress passed the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. The 1970’s was a transitional decade, some of the main ideas of the 1960s were still in progress or Americans were still adapting to them; however, many institutions focused on producing knowledge instead of producing more products. As the article mentioned that it is doubtful the passions and tide of changes that erupted in the 1950’s/1960’s could have continued. At some point, the culture must stop, catch its breath and consolidate the changes. So, the 1970’s became the decade for society to do that.





#1970s #Civilrights #Equalopportunities #highereducation


Hack #5 Hip Hop, Black Power, and Rap

The song “Changes” is a song by Tupac feat. Talent. Released on October 13, 1998. The lyrics of the song addresses many problems that African- American community faced in the 1990s. One of the biggest problems were the drugs in the African community as the song mentioned that drugs were easy to get and even drugs were sold to kids and no one cares. Also, that many people in the community make living selling drugs and guns. I believe that Tupac shared a lot for Huey Newton ideas about the rights for African Americans. As he mentioned in the song that anyone that fight for civil rights is targeted by the corrupt government and the police. He says, “It’s time to fight back that what Huey said, Two shots in the dark now Huey’s dead”. The entire song Tupac mentions the different ideas by the government to keep the community oppressed. Also, there is a part where he said that a black president would never happen because most of the people incarcerated are African Americans. He also stated that we have to change the way of living to have better communities, not only for African Americans, but to everyone, “Let’s change the way we eat, let’s change the way we live, and let’s change the way we treat each other. You see the old way wasn’t workin’, so it’s on us to do what we gotta do to survive,”. A profound message from Tupac.



Come on come on
I see no changes wake up in the morning and I ask myself
Is life worth living should I blast myself?
I’m tired of bein’ poor and even worse I’m black
My stomach hurts so I’m lookin’ for a purse to snatch
Cops give a damn about a negro
Pull the trigger kill a nigga he’s a hero
Give the crack to the kids who the hell cares
One less hungry mouth on the welfare
First ship ’em dope and let ’em deal the brothers
Give ’em guns step back watch ’em kill each other
It’s time to fight back that’s what Huey said
Two shots in the dark now Huey’s dead
I got love for my brother but we can never go nowhere
Unless we share with each other
We gotta start makin’ changes
Learn to see me as a brother instead of two distant strangers
And that’s how it’s supposed to be
How can the Devil take a brother if he’s close to me?
I’d love to go back to when we played as kids
But things changed, and that’s the way it is
That’s just the way it is
Things will never be the same
That’s just the way it is
Aww yeah
“Seeds and Legacies: Tapping the Potential in Hip Hop”, Gwendolyn Pough
#HipHop #Tupac #Legacy #WaronDrugs #AfricanAmericans

HACK #4 Counterculture


The Plastic Ono Band was a band formed by the distinguished John Lennon and Yoko Ono in 1969. Lennon and Ono had a collaborative song called “Give peace a chance”, The lyrics are straightforward, “All we are saying is give peace a chance”. This song is a direct protest of the Vietnam war. The anti-war movement was gaining strength in the United States in the 1960s, It began mostly on college campuses. Although most people supported the war in Vietnam, many artists and students rejected the way in which the United States was in intervening in Vietnam. This minority mostly related to the Hippie movement started to make protests in bigger cities and started to influence young adults to support peace. The movement gained strength when people found out that many US soldier committed atrocities in Vietnam such as raping and killing Vietnam civilians. One of the biggest protests of the Anti-war movement took place  On October 21, 1967,  as some 100,000 protesters gathered at the Lincoln Memorial.pentagon574.jpg

Protests at the Lincoln Memorial 19

This anti-war movement is closely related to the civil rights movement led by Martin Luther King. When he went public about the opposition of the Vietnam war because most of the casualties were African Americans. He also condemned the war’s diversion of federal funds from domestic programs.





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#Counterculture #civilrights #peace #movement #givepeaceachance


Hack #3: Acculturation

Cannibal Culture, by Deborah Root, explains how the process is taking in and fully understanding information or ideas about culture and then acquire them. For example, I must mention that I am a first-generation immigrant from Bolivia. I had only been in the United States for 5 years.in the process of adapting to the American culture, I had to adjust some customs to fit in college. However, I am familiar with many holidays in America. Many people in my home country started to acquire Halloween, Christmas, and even Thanksgiving. Many people grow up watching TV series or Movies mainly produced in Hollywood. It works both ways too, many people that travel abroad returns with a different way

The Emperor’s new groove movie


Llama fashion

of thinking about the culture. Also, after the Disney movie The Emperor’s new groove many people were aware of Peruvian culture and what a llama is, the movie was a hit and Disney decided to create an animated series of Cuzco the llama and emperor. However, according to Helen Cowie, a lecturer from Early Modern History from the University of York, llamas were becoming popular over the globe since the 1990s. I believe that many people in North America are really fascinated with many different cultures and embrace them too in a positive/negative way. This is why America is the most Cultural diverse country in the world.



Root, Deborah. Cannibal Culture: Art, Appropriation, & the Commodification of Difference. 1996.

The emperor’s new groove movie


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Early American Cinema Project- The Gold Rush ( Charles Chaplin 1925)

The Gold Rush – Silent Version, this movie was written produced and directed by Charles Chaplin. The inspiration of this movie came from the famous Klondike Gold Rush. The Klondike Rush was a migration of over 100,000 people to seek gold in the Northwestern area of Canada

The cold, the steepness and the weight of equipment made the climb extremely arduous and it could take a day to get to the top of the 1,000 feet high slope. It took forty trips to get each Klondiker’s…University of Washington

between 1895 to nearly 1900. As a result, people from major cities at the time such as San Francisco and Seattle started the long trip to the north, many people became rich and for some, the trip was useless and returned without an ounce of gold. The different real stories about people migrating to the north shocked the people because the trip cost many lives. The weather was extremely cold and the lack of food cause people to eat deceased human beings and even eat the leather of the shoes to survive.


This movie presented the opposite; the accounts of horror and immorality were transformed into comedy. The movie was a hit and received Academy Award nominations for Best Music and Best sound even the movie was without speech accompanied by music and written message on the screen. Also, this film is the fifth-highest grossing in silent cinema history. This movie made Chaplin realized that the genre was ideal to be remembered with. The critiques were phenomenal starting with the Brussels World fair stating that Chaplin’s silent film was the second greatest of all time in 1958. Many working-class people were identified by the movie because of the need and the dream to become rich no matter risking the lives in a trip facing extreme weather. The audience were typically the working class, “It is questionable whether the wealthy really accepted movies “wholeheartedly” by mid-decade, A 1910 survey found that 72 percent of moviegoers were working class, and only 3 percent were described as member of leisure class” (Sternheimer pg.36). The release of this movie came after World war I and before the great depression; as a result, the time when the movie was released in 1925, was a relatively peaceful time. I believe that this influenced many comedy films

Silent Movie Theaters 1920s

because people didn’t have any major trouble in society. Many people were starting to establish in major cities rather than small towns/villages. The entertainment industry started to thrive. The film industry became popular among the American culture and film stars started to become famous worldwide. If I could l live in a different timeframe, I would choose the 1920s.




Sternheimer, Karen, Celebrity Culture and the American Dream: Stardom and Social Mobility (2nd Edition)

Link Film at Kanopy


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Poster Image


Klondike Gold Rush


Silent Movie Cinema


Hack #2 Film Bodies – Titanic



Titanic is a must-see movie, it is the second-highest-grossing film of all time. This movie marked a new time in Cinema history. The movie release date was December 9, 1997. Director James Cameron directed prior fascinating movies such as Terminator, Rambo and many more before guiding the legendary film. The film is based on the romance between Jack (Leonardo DiCaprio) and Rose (Kate Winslet), he thought that the human loss would be essential to have an impact on the audience. The director was clever to get the attention of women and men at the same time. The action, emotion and sex scenes got the audience fascinated by the entire film. In the movie women, especially the main character Rose was forced to have a marriage as a solution to financial problems, but she attempted to suicide. The females were portrayed as objects and powerless. On the other hand, men are portrayed as really powerful over women except that this movie also had Jack as a penniless artist, adventurer and with great charisma. After falling in love there are many erotic scenes where Rose appears naked and also a sex scene.

I remember the first time watching the movierose.jpg, I was fascinated but I covered my eyes in those scenes because I was probably 8 years old. I believe that these scenes attracted men combined with the action of the shipwreck. However, the top of the emotion came when Jack drowned and died unexpectedly. According to Williams, in her Anatomy of film bodies, the ecstasy at this moment was sob and tears, (Williams pg. 9) I remember even men were crying at the cinema. I think that the combination of genres and targeting different audiences made this movie one of the greatest of all time.

Movie: Titanic

Director: James Cameron

Date of Release: December 9, 1997



Williams, Linda. Film Bodies: Gender, Genre, and Excess. Film Quarterly, Vol. 44, No. 4 (Summer, 1991), pp. 2-13.



Hack #1 “The Other” in a Circus



Definitely the circus is a place where people want to get entertainment in a particular way. As the professor mentioned in the class (circus video) for Hack 1, many people in the 19th century were eager to look this type of entertainment; as a result, it was meaningful for the locals because the circus was classified as a “big event” in town. There are many reasons why the circus was so popular and at the same time required to define the American culture itself. The difference between civilized and savage was constructed even before the circus spectacle in the United States. In the class reading Encountering the other, it is stated that many people wanted to alienate and define what is civilized or not. For example, the first “American Indians where considered more animals than men”. In a circus the idea was very similar, this circus event was translated more to watch freaks amusing a civilized crowd. The “Other” were the people who performed doing acting or anything that was different from what is civilized; including embarrassing performances. The performers were treated inferior in class, specially the clowns. The reason was simply for their appearance and for their performance that often include humiliation or shame to make laugh the crowd. The elements of a circus specially the feeling to be superior or inferior still exists and can be related to other cultural areas; for example, racism is a major problem in American culture. The “other” often translates to people from other races, sex orientation or religious beliefs. In conclusion, I agree that the American culture progressed over the past century in a positive way accepting what is “different” compared to other cultures that don’t have tolerance for unconventional ideas.


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#racism #unconventional #tolerance #reflection