HACK EXTRA CREDIT: Women’s Suffrage Movement

Image: http://www.historybyzim.com/2013/03/woman-suffrage-parade-of-1913/


Women’s suffrage, it is one of the significant achievements that has been made in American history. After nearly three-quarters of a century, enfranchisement finally passed the Congress, adding the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. It goes without saying that enormous amount of efforts and sacrifices came along with this historical accomplishment. Women used tactics, strategies, and events in order to win the right to vote.

With the growth of the suffrage movement, more and more women from diverse classes advocated enfranchisement. These women ranged from working-class trade unionists and middle-class reformers to women from the very highest class and young college-educated women. The involvement from the highest class was critical, such as Alva Belmont, who was one of the richests, funding offices and aiding the publication of newspapers. The more and more large number of women united and participated in the movement, the more pressure it put on a move to women’s voting right.

To make the movement efficiently and effectively work, women’s organizations were indispensable. A lot of organizations were established during this time, including the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) and National Women’s Party (NWP). Alice Paul, once chair of NAWSA as well as the leader of NWP, was one of the very essential figures in leading the suffrage movement to the final triumph. Nothing could destroy or change her strong determination and dedication toward women’s right to vote, and she was willing to do and did whatever it takes to accomplish what she called “ordinary equality”.

Lastly and most importantly, a series of protests and parades, in other words, women’s public appearances, made a significant impact on winning the women’s right to vote. The most prominent suffrage parade was held in Washington, D.C. on March 3, 1913, which put the women’s suffrage movement on the front page news across the United States. This parade made an enormous change, leading to the suffrage debate in the House of Representatives for the first time in 17 years.


HACK #5: “Changes”

Image: https://productofsociety.org/2014/06/17/tupac-x-changes/


Tupac Shakur, also known as 2Pac, is an American rapper and actor in 1980s and 1990s. Tupac began his music career as a rebel to articulate inequalities and injustices faced by many African Americans, and he became one of the best rappers of all time. His talent eventually made him a spokesperson for his generation.

In the song called “Changes”, Tupac expresses all the suffer that African Americans have gone through. “I’m tired of bein’ poor and even worse I’m black. Cops give a damn about a negro. Pull the trigger kill a nigga he’s a hero. I see no changes. All I see is racist faces. Misplaced hate makes disgrace to races. It ain’t a secret. Don’t conceal the fact. The penitentiary’s packed, and it’s filled with blacks.” The messages deliver the severe reality about racism and describe how brutal racial discrimination has been towards black people.

Later in the song, he continues, “We gotta make a change. It’s time for us as a people to start makin’ some changes.” In the end, however, the song ends with “Some things will never change”… which indicates the deep issues that have been rooted in society about racism and a message that people “repeat” the same thing over and over.

Stanford in her article titled “Keepin’ It Real in Hip Hop Politics: A Political Perspective of Tupac Shakur“ concludes that, “Tupac Shakur was important to the hip hop community and urban youth, not only because of his lyrical style or musical contributions. Tupac became their political advocate, educator, and motivator”. He was a powerful and influential individual who devoted his life to political issues and made an impact on those issues.



Works Cited:

Stanford, Karin L. Keepin’ It Real in Hip Hop Politics: A Political Perspective of Tupac Shakur. Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 42, No. 1. JANUARY 2011, pp. 19.


HACK #4: “A Change Is Gonna Come”

Image: https://www.bet.com/news/national/2013/08/23/the-anniversary-march-on-washington-aims-to-start-a-new-civil-rights-movement.html


The song called “A Change Is Gonna Come” written by Sam Cooke is known as an anthem of the 1960s civil rights movement. Many protests took place during this time, and one of the most massive protests that occurred was The March on Washington on August 28, 1963. The protest is also known as the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, and approximately 250,000 people gathered in front of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. The purpose of this protest was to draw attention to the racial challenges and inequalities faced by African Americans. Martin Luther King, the greatest leader of the civil rights movement, addressed a famous speech called “I Have A Dream”.

This song was released on December 22, 1964, which was the year that The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was legislated (on July 2, 1964) and finally ended segregation in public places as well as prohibited employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. Cooke sings, “There have been times that I thought I couldn’t last for long”, which describes the pain and suffer of racial discrimination that black people have faced during the time. After the sorrowful message, however, he continues, “But now I think I’m able to carry on”, which implies that the light has finally started shining in the darkness and things are starting to get better.




HACK #3 Acculturation

Image: https://patch.com/california/imperialbeach/imperial-beach-powwow-by-the-sea-to-celebrate-kumeyaa12a5eac5dc


Related imageImage result for KUMEYAAY old town san diego

Image left: http://www.nmai.si.edu/environment/kumeyaay/People.aspx

Image right: http://www.kumeyaay.info/culture/ewaa/pages/001.html


The earliest indications of people who lived in San Diego date back approximately 9,000 years. Those people are called “Kumeyaay”. A picture on the left hand side shows American Indians, Kumeyaay back in old times in San Diego. The picture on the right hand side taken in 2005 indicates Fausto Diaz, a current Kumeyaay. She built a Native American Diegueño-Luiseño style EWAA (waa waah) or KICHA traditional shelter of the California Indians for a special project in the Old Town San Diego State Historic Park. These two women dress similarly, demonstrating that their culture has been passed down and an important aspect to their life to this day. 

Root states in her book that, “Consumers want their purchases to be authentic, and tourists want their experiences to be real”, which I agree. When I first came to San Diego, Old Town was on my list to visit as I heard that it was one of the historic sites. I just walked around and took some photographs during the visit, but it was nice to see people dressed like the women in the images selling unique things at the shops and serving at the restaurants. It made me feel like I was experiencing their culture back in the old time.


Works Cited

OLD TOWN San Diego GUIDE. Historic Sites located in Old Town San Diego. http://www.oldtownsandiegoguide.com/history.html

Root, Deborah. Cannibal Culture: Art, Appropriation, & the Commodification of Difference. 1996.



The Kid

Director: Charlie Chaplin
Release Date: January 21, 1921
Cast: Charlie Chaplin, Edna Purviance, Jackie Coogan
Producer: Charlie Chaplin
Screenwriter: Charlie Chaplin


The Kid, an American film directed, produced, and played by Charlie Chaplin is considered one of his great achievements at all time. It includes comedy and drama, featuring a story of an orphan boy and a tramp, Chaplin making a life together. While many of praises go to this film, it captures some of the social issues that were prominent during that time: Race, gender, and class.

The first arguable scene is when a little child delivers flower to a woman, Edna Purviance. You probably notice that the child is the only individual who is black in the entire film. In addition, he is still a little boy who is already working at that young age. These imply that how the life was for the minority, black people and how the majority, white people viewed and treated them as “others”. ELIJAHGROTE writes about the African American civil rights struggle in the History 110 blog, stating that, “The African Americans are still fighting for the same civil rights as everyone else”, which is without a doubt. They have been fighting for what every single human deserves. This few second scene helps the audience see that issue.

When it comes to women, it is slightly different. In contrast to the traditional image of women being dependent and a house wife, Purviance played a successful stage star. Considering the time the film was produced, which was after the Nineteenth Amendment was passed and women’s public appearances increased greatly across the United States, the successful woman performer shows women’s growing influence on a society. It also suggests the idea of the American Dream. Karen Sternheimer in her book called Celebrity Culture and the American Dream states that, “Celebrity culture seems to provide a continual reaffirmation that upward mobility is possible in America”. This film provides that. Remember the woman was described as a poor mother in the beginning to the point where she had to give up on her precious child. Although the film does not include the process to her successful path, she later became what Sternheimer calls a “celebrity”, which was the powerful phenomenon that existed and still exists in an American society.

Related image

Love and social problems, these seem to be the main themes that were displayed in the film. The story shows a strong bond between the child and Chaplin. There is no clue if the child knew that Chaplin was not his real father, but they loved each other and needed each other. Their life was not ideal, but they seemed they were living a happy life together. However, the sudden event that rips their happiness apart happens when the two men from the county orphan asylum, which they call it “proper care and attention”, which already gives a strange sense, come into Chaplin’s house to take the child away. Now this scene is also prominent because it reveals an issue on social classes. You can see how the bossy man with the glasses did not talk to Chaplin in person. He instead used his attendant to deliver his messages to Chaplin. In the film, notice Chaplin was represented as a Tramp. This tells that how upper class people look down on and disrespect lower class people, conveying the deep gap between the wealth and the poor, “others”.

After analyzing the film, what became visible is what American Culture was like back around that time. It reveals how it had many social related issues, race, gender, and class, within the society. This one film covers all that. Now when comparing the past to the present, has any of the issues been actually solved? Well, you know the answer to it.


Works Cited:

ELIJAHGROTEl. MACRO ESSAY. 11 May, 2015. https://hackintohistory.org/2015/05/11/macro-essay-2/

Chaplin, Charlie. The Kid. Janus Films. 21 January, 1921. https://sdsu.kanopy.com/video/kid

Sternheimer, Karen. Celebrity Culture and the American Dream. New York. Routledge. 2015.








The Asexual Mother (The Shining, Stanley Kubrick, 1980)


Photo Source

Wendy Torrence is portrayed by Shelley Duvall.  Throughout The Shining Wendy is always shown fully clothed with loose fitting garments.  She may resemble a nun with only her head and hands showing.  Many scenes are shot with a lower camera angle which suggests that we are seeing what Danny, her young son, would see.  Therefore Danny’s mother is not sexualized and understood to be an asexual guardian.  This nun-like appearance contrasts with the hypersexualized naked woman apparition that appears to Jack, Wendy’s husband (Jack Nicholson).   Jack can expect nothing sexual from his mom-wife and this combined with Jack’s inability to express his feelings turns him into an exaggerated cliche of the male oppressor.  Jack wields a wood axe while donning blue jeans and red plaid, a typical homage to a lumberjack.  Wendy wields a kitchen knife presumably because it may be a weapon that she had the most time with in the kitchen where the cliche woman would spend her time.

Near the end of the film, Wendy contradicts what Williams suggest.  Wendy does not become the androgynous she-hero and kill the axe-wielding Jack, she actually becomes more “womanly” and incapable.  She runs from the threat avoiding confrontation. While Jack is frozen by the elements, Wendy is frozen by fear.  For good measure Kubrick “tortures the women” just as Williams alludes to through Hitchcock, by providing Wendy with impossible and supernatural imagery.


HACK #2: Controversial Disney Movies

As some of you may know, there have been some controversial arguments going on about Disney movies. The arguments include: Why do girls often times end up being saved by boys? Why are many of the girl characters drawn excessively beautiful? Why does it picture romance for little children? The most importantly, they include severe racial problems. Well, I feel Disney has made some progress in terms of the things mentioned above in comparison to the past, but I would be a liar if the documentary film about Disney that I watched in communication class did not significantly change the way I view Disney movies.

Here, I picked “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs” as an example, the first princess movie by Disney. One of the problems that I would like to bring up is that how female bodies in Disney movies, especially in Disney Princess movies, are described to have such a perfect body feature. It is not surprising that many girls are not satisfied with their body because they watch Disney movies since they are very little and tend to view those perfect looking Disney princesses as the perfect female body shape. Little children are easily affected by that.

In the article called “Film Bodies: Gender, Genre, and Excess” by Linda Williams, he states that, “Sex, violence, and emotion are fundamental elements of the sensational effects of these three types of films”. Well, in Disney movies, since it is supposedly meant for children, you do not see radical sex scenes, but when it comes to violence and emotion, there are many. Especially as for violence, because it is written in a silly animated way, we do not think of it as serious, but once you step back and think about it as if it was real, then it would be pretty dangerous. There are more movies produced by Disney films that include all kinds of people, diversity, but I doubt that the image that has been implemented in me about Disney movies would be easily changed.


The Full Title: Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs

Director: David Hand, Larry Morey, Wilfred Jackson, Ben Sharpsteen, Perce Pearce, and William Cottrell

Date of Releases: February 4, 1938

Source: Film Bodies: Gender, Genre, and Excess by Linda Williams

Image Source: https://medium.com/cinenation-show/feminisney-snow-white-first-and-worst-9103ed335a3c


#Disney #Disney Princess #Controversial #Children

Hack #2: Film Bodies

The movie, “Charade,” shows gender differences because it shows men as dominant and women as passive. In the beginning of the movie, Regina, played by Audrey Hepburn, says that she is divorcing her husband because she does not love him. Her friend, Sylvie, told her to not divorce her rich husband and to not care if they do not love each other. This shows that women depended on men for income rather than love and that men were the providers and protectors. Her friend even made a statement that it was surprising that Regina’s divorce has not turned her fat, inferring that women have a beauty standard that had to be upheld and that being “fat” is a negative thing.

Regina was often seen as a “damsel in distress” who needed a man’s help to save her from multiple men trying to get $250,000 that was stolen from the American government by her late husband. She was an innocent woman who had no idea about her late husband’s wealth or occupation and she even trusted a man that she just met while on vacation which makes her character seem weak and gullible. She would not fight back the men, despite them trying to attack her; she would just run away and yell for her love interest to solve her problems. The movie portrayed the men as strong, dominant, and assertive while the women were seen as innocent, weak, and obsessed with marriage.

However, I do believe that Regina was a more of a powerful female character during this time period when the movie was released. Her character cleverly tricked several men when they were chasing after her and she was also able to verbally hold her own and strike back at the men with feisty comebacks.Regina would also assert herself on her love interest by making the first move to kiss him. Linda Williams asserts that “there is a strong mixture of passivity and activity, and a bisexual oscillation between the poles of each” in melodramatic films which is shown by Regina’s character, a passive yet dominant role. The “female” body was not sexualized in this movie and it was not sensationalized either. All the characters dressed modest and there were not any dialogue that discussed any person’s body, male or female.

Title of Movie: Charade

Director: Stanley Donen

Date of Release: 1963

Actor: Audrey Hepburn
Source: Williams, Linda. Film Bodies: Gender, Genre, and Excess. Film Quarterly, Vol. 44, No. 4 (Summer, 1991), pp. 2-13.

Picture source: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/337558934555084181/

#Charade #gender #AudreyHepburn #film

Train Wreck [#1]


Photo Source

4 AM on June 22, 1918

A train collides with another.  The front train is stopped while the rear train steams at 35 mph.  The engineer of the rear train dozed off and missed the warnings.  Many of the wooden cars are derailed and after a few moments the kerosene lanterns consume the wreckage in a bright inferno.  Eighty Six people are either crushed to death or smothered by flames.  A survivor, Joe Coyle, weeps on his knees.   His aspiring All-American baseball team, scattered, scorched, crushed, and few.  Most of the team did not escape.  The others among the dead were simple passengers on their way to Hammond.  The dead were exhumed from the wreckage and were all buried in a mass tomb in Chicago.

Parts of this story are false.

Joe Coyle was a clown and he weeps for his lost wife and daughter.  The baseball team was the Hagenbeck-Wallace Circus.  The dead are circus performers not simple passengers.  The mass grave, however is real.

Do you feel worse for the baseball team or the circus?

Was the mass grave simply the easiest and most cost effective solution?  Did the survivors have a say? Or was the decision made by a different authority?

Perhaps it is just culturally acceptable to bury “the others” together as an incoherent group.  Just as through Orientalism, all “Moslem” people are portrayed as uniquely indistinguishable packs of animals (Orientalism, Edward Said).  So to must all circus performers be easily lumped together with no individuality.  A singular grey clay is easier to categorize than many colors mixed.


HACK #1: Circus and Race


“Circus”, when I hear the word, the first image that comes to mind is actually very negative. I imagine the animals treated in severe ways and harsh conditions. The idea has been implanted in me for a long time because I have heard, seen, and read about how poorly they are treated. However, a problem was not just about the animals. When it comes to the performers, there were also contradictory issues: They were differentiated and treated differently based on race and class.
According to “Encountering the Other”, it mentions how Indians were categorized as “The Other”, which is marked by differences in race, gender, class, religion, ethnicity, or a combination of cultural categories. They were viewed as undeveloped savages because their culture was not “civilized” as European Americans. In the presentation given by professor, people painted their face as a clown, offering us a different way of viewing gender and class: “Genderless”. As you can see, it is hard to tell if the clown in the picture is male or female. The problems mentioned above indicate the dark aspect of the perspective of society toward race.