When looking at the culture Hip Hop one can believe that it has no positive outcomes for people involved in it. Instead, when examining Hip Hop according to Gwendolyn D. Pough in the book Seeds and Legacies: Tapping the Potential in Hip-Hop when referencing Tupac and Notorious BIG that “their music touched the lives of many on a daily basis” (Pough 287). Much negativity surrounds the Hip Hop culture but when investigating it fully one can see the genuineness it offers. As stated by Gwendolyn D. Pough “the negative things we see in rap music and Hip-Hop culture are the negative things we see in this country—in this society—if we are honest” (Pough 288). However, some artists “also during this period, Tupac became known for his ability to plan events, organize people, and raise their political consciousness” (Stanford 10). One thing Hip-Hop rap culture offers is a relatable scenario for people and that is the majority if not all the rappers grew up poor and know firsthand experiences of growing up disadvantaged. Hip Hop uses historical situations as it communicates to its audience on uniting to fix this issue. In an article, Hip-Hop Is Good For The Brain. A New Study Proves It published by Bonita it states “Much of the efficacy of Hip-Hop therapy is attributed to “positive visual imagery” in Rap lyrics, exemplified by songs “that detail people who rise from the ashes of poverty or overcome significant obstacles to find fame, fortune, admiration, and redemption”. Overall, when studying the brain it proves that much of the rappers state of mind it begins to use very complex creative parts of it.


#HipHop #Rap #NegativeToPositive



Pough, Gwendolyn D. Seeds and Legacies: Tapping the Potential in Hip-Hop. Edited by Mark Anthony. Neal and Murray Forman, Routledge, 2004.

Stanford, Karin L.  KeepirT It Real in Hip  Hop Politics: A Political  Perspective of Tupac Shakur. SAGE.

Bonita. “Hip-Hop Is Good For The Brain. A New Study Proves It.” Ambrosia For Heads, 28 Dec. 2017, ambrosiaforheads.com/2017/12/the-new-science-behind-hip-hops-effect-on-the-brain/.


Hack #5


    In the song “Fuck tha Police” by N.W.A is one that focuses on the judicial unfairness experienced by African Americans at that time. In the reading Keepin’ It Real in Hip Hop Politics: A Political Perspective of Tupac Shakur by Karin L. Stanford it states that “in the midst of these devastating policy changes, the African American community suffered through the Reagan administration’s sanction of insults that maligned its character” (Stanford 11). During this time of change, much of the African American community was experiencing a form of segregation. Therefore, “as noted, Tupac’s ideological perspective and first-person experiences growing up disadvantaged served as a reference point for his political activism” (Stanford 12). Much of “the rage and anger are consistent in the messages and presences of the Black nationalists and rappers” (Pough 285) according to Gwendolyn Pough in Seeds and Legacies: Tapping the Potential in Hip Hop. In the song verse, one Ice Cube states “A young nigga got it bad ‘cause I’m brown and not the other color, so police think they have the authority to kill a minority” claiming that the racial profiling and discrimination experienced in the late 80’s was causing an enormous divide.



Stanford, Karin L. KeepirT It Real in Hip Hop Politics: A Political Perspective of Tupac Shakur. Sage.

Neal, Mark Anthony., and Murray Forman. That’s the Joint!: the Hip-Hop Studies Reader. Routledge, 2004.


“A Young Nigga Got It Bad ‘Cause I’m Brown / And Not the Other Color, so Police Think / They Have the Authority to Kill a Minority.” Genius, 9 Aug. 1988, genius.com/18205.



Hack #4


 In the song “A Change Is Gonna Come” by Sam Cooke released in 1964 was a song to inspire people to put an end to segregation and prejudice. This song directly correlates with the Civil Rights Movement occurring from 1954 to 1968. In the lyrics, it states “Oh and just like the river I’ve been running ev’r since” speaking about how even after the abolishment of slavery equal rights were still not available. Even though Brown v. Board of Education ended racial segregation in schools in 1954, many institutions still remained segregated. Segregation experiences are heard throughout the song such as “I go to the movie and I go downtown Somebody keeps tellin’ me don’t hang around”. Near the end of the song, it says “Then I go to my brother And I say brother help me please But he winds up knockin’ me” proving that it was even looked down upon to helping one in need-based off their ethnicity. Many challenges were faced throughout the years of the Civil Rights Movement that is correlated with this song such as the Rosa Parks and Montgomery bus incident. Sam Cooke foreshadowed with his line “But I know a change gonna come, oh yes it will” that segregation and prejudice views would end which it dead four years after his passing.

#CivilRightsMovement #AChangeIsGonnaCome #SamCooke



“Sam Cooke – A Change Is Gonna Come.” Genius, 22 Dec. 1964, genius.com/Sam-cooke-a-change-is-gonna-come-lyrics.

PBS, Public Broadcasting Service, http://www.pbs.org/johngardner/chapters/4b.html.

History.com Staff. “Civil Rights Movement Timeline.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 2017, http://www.history.com/topics/civil-rights-movement-timeline.

Hack #3


Acculturation is defined as “cultural modification of an individual, group, or people by adapting to or borrowing traits from another culture” (Merriam-Webster). The Haka is a traditional war dance performed by individuals in the Maori culture. The original Maori Haka is intended to frighten enemies prior to battle where “they would grunt and cry in an intimidating way, while beating and waving their weapons” (Haka Tours). The Haka has been featured in a variety of sports, films, and media. One form of the Haka is seen in the film The Lord of Rings: The Two Towers, specifically scene forty-nine The Battle of the Hornburg (Jackson, The Lord of Rings: The Two Towers).  In this scene, when the Orcs arrive, they begin to make noises while rhythmically beating their weapons on the ground. In Cannibal Culture by Deborah Root, she states that “within a capitalist economy culture—by which I mean songs, stories, images, emblems, ceremonies, techniques—has been inserted into a system of exchange in which any element can be abstracted from its social and ceremonial context and assigned a monetary value” (Root 73). While the Maori battles date from the fifteenth century to the early nineteenth century, the movie was released in 2002. According to the reading, “in order to work, the objects, events and experiences that are commodified and marketed as cultural difference are dependent on concepts of cultural and aesthetic authenticity” (Root 69). In Polynesian culture, old traditions and stories have always been very important to pass down through family. Growing up in a traditional Polynesian family, one constantly hears about the Haka and its relevance in the culture. As a Polynesian descendent it can be difficult to see specific traits of Polynesian culture glamorized in American media and film.


“Acculturation.” Merriam-Webster, Merriam-Webster, http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/acculturation.

“The Haka: What It Means & Why It Is Performed.” New Zealand Tours – Small Group Adventures and Holidays, 24 Aug. 2017, hakatours.com/blog/haka-meaning/.

“Haka Tours New Zealand.” Haka Tours New Zealand, 14 Mar. 2013, hakatours.com/blog/haka-meaning/.

Galia, Elril. “The Two Towers Extended Edition Movie Script Index.” The Age of the Ring, a Lord of the Rings UK Fansite, http://www.ageofthering.com/atthemovies/scripts/thetwotowersscript.php.

Osborne, Barrie M, et al. The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers. New Line Cinema, 2002.

Root, Deborah. Cannibal Culture: Art, Appropriation, and the Commodification of Difference. Westview Press, 1998.




Early American Cinema Project – Birth of a Nation

             americandreampic2The Birth of a Nation was one of the original American silent film and motion picture to be screened in the United States, and even the White House. This movie depicts African-Americans as savages, wanting to cause harm and steal European-American women. However, the Ku Klux Klan are praised for their heroic deeds against these “savages”. In the first scene of the movie, African-Americans are depicted as slaves, while the European-Americans are dressed exceptionally well, immediately separating the social and racial classes. Although a few African-Americans were cast in this feature film, the majority of the actors were “blackface”, otherwise known as a European-American with their face painted black. The book, Celebrity Culture & the American Dream by Karen Sternheimer, states that “references to Africans or Native-Americans as savages were not unusual, and African- Americans were all but ignored until the 1940s, when any coverage tended to rely on stock racist caricatures” (Sternheimer 6). The cinematic adaptation of race contained several mockeries of African-Americans, that would not only harm their social interaction for decades to come, but people of all color. According to Jessica Schulz on Hackintohistory.org “The African-Americans in the South were segregated through local and state legislatures passing laws that kept them separated from the the white society” (Schulz Group 1). Even to this day, there are lingering sways of racial bias and racism that has not been eradicated, due to behaviors and biases that arose so long ago. Even though slavery was abolished, it was not a popular decision. As a result, racism has continued to be a social construct in American culture, bred and taught within the parameters of society. According to English philosopher John Locke, an individual is born tabula rasa, meaning blank slate. Thus, for one to evolve into a racist, one must be taught racism.Birthofanationpic


As previously mentioned, The Birth of a Nation was viewed in the White House. As the first 12-reel motion picture, this movie was bound to receive popularity and attention from the start. Additionally, the film’s ideology forces viewers to see only through a bias lens of racism. The underlying racial slurs were synonymous with the “dominant racial ideology” of the time period in 1915 segregated America (Wallace 85). Definitely, one of the most riveting scenes in the movie is the assassination of the President who abolished slavery Abraham Lincoln. On the more political side, the infamous national organization the Ku Klux Klan starred in this film. Including the organization, allowed for marketing of the group, as well as redefined the meaning of the “white hood”. Consequently, “[the] racist tale of the Ku Klux Klan was not a problem for many white, rural audience members—the same people who would otherwise be most critical of a medium that attracted urbanites and immigrants” (Sternheimer 34). This gained a following in many southern states, including Georgia. These and many other events transpired in response to this socially expressive film. Even though The Birth of a Nation is a silent film, it does display words on a slide throughout the movie. Hence, one of those slides stated “Their leaders must be hanged and their states treated as conquered provinces” referring to the African Americans. Therefore, the film points to an overarching theme of folklore present from introducing credits to the ending scene. Folklore can be defined as, “a body of widely held, but false or unsubstantiated beliefs”. As stated by Jessica’s blog on Hackintohistory.org  “perhaps the most devastating aspect of the period was the corruption and abuses incurred under the Freedmen Bureau which was created to help not only the former slaves and mulattoes, but other displaced persons and refugees. In primary source 8, Lucy McMillan, a former slave in South Carolina, explains how the Klu Klux Klan came to her house, took away her husband, threatened to whip her, and burned down her property. Showing that reconstruction failed, and the blacks were not seen as equal to rights during this period” (Schulz Group 1). Hence, although the racist ideology present in this film, from the blackface actors to the misrepresentation of the KKK organization, is widely held, it is unsubstantiated other than bias that has traveled through generations based off mere opinion and hearsay of inequality.


The historical context of this movie takes place in the early 1900s. The film itself debuted in 1915. There were a few social and political events going on during that time including the Great Migration and World War I. The Great Migration occurred due to the lack of economic opportunities and terrible segregation laws that occurred in the South. This triggered a massive movement of African-Americans to leave the South and move elsewhere, including the Northeast, Michigan, and some areas in the Midwest. This historical event took place for more than fifty years, starting in 1916 until the 1970s. The Great Migration was also said to be inspired partially by World War I. Throughout World War I, African-Americans viewed the war as an opportunity that they could demonstrate patriotism. This, in turn, would earn them a place as equal citizens in American culture. Many of the African-American soldiers had grown weary of racial discrimination and abuse in the trenches that forces violence from both sides.



Release Date in the USA: February 8, 1915


Directors: D. W. Griffith


Producers: D. W. Griffith

Harry Aitken


Screenplay by: D. W. Griffith

Frank E. Woods


Actors: Lillian Gish
Mae Marsh
Henry B. Walthall
Miriam Cooper
Ralph Lewis
George Siegmann
Walter Long



  1. Wallace, Michele Faith. “The Good Lynching and ‘The Birth of a Nation’: Discourses and Aesthetics of Jim Crow.” Cinema Journal, vol. 43, no. 1, 2003, pp. 85–104. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/1225932.
  2. schulz, jessica. “Teambadass.” Teambadass, 18 Feb. 2015, teambadasshist110.wordpress.com/.
  3. “Folklore.” Dictionary.com, Dictionary.com, http://www.dictionary.com/browse/folklore?s=t.
  4. Sternheimer, Karen. Celebrity Culture and the American Dream: Stardom and Social Mobility. Routledge, 2015.
  5. “Great Migration.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 2010, http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/great-migration.
  6. https://www.google.com/search?q=birth+of+a+nation+1915&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjepYeksK_cAhVrl1QKHcezB-UQ_AUICygC&biw=1710&bih=994&dpr=1.6#imgrc=KrbNtuPU7I3pWM:





Hack 2

Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi directed by Richard Marquand (25 May 1983)

In Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi, women are portrayed as oversexualized damsels in distress that constantly need heroic intervention from men. There are two main examples from the film. Leia, played by actress Carrie Fisher, is captured by Jabba after making a failed attempt at rescuing Han Solo, played by Harrison Ford. Once she was captured, Jabba had her in revealing clothing, chained to his body, constantly pulling her towards him. Luke Skywalker, played by Mark Hamill, and Han Solo set out to rescue her. In scene eleven, Jabba’s Throne Room, the ruler of the galactic underworld Jabba is seen with a chain attached around the neck of an alien female dancer named Oola, played by Femi Taylor. He grins at her while signaling for her to come and sit with him, and as she refuses while backing away Jabba gets angry and then presses a button causing Oola to fall into a room to be devoured by a monster.
Star Wars is historically an influential film. It broke barriers in the film industry and set precedents for future filmmakers to come. By sexualizing women, the Star Wars Saga, especially episode VI has established that women are too delicate to stand up for themselves and need a man to rescue them for their problems. In Film Bodies by Linda Williams, Foucault introduces the idea that “the sexual saturation of the female body that audiences of all sorts have received some of their most powerful sensations” (Williams 4). The director chose to sexualize Leia and Oola by portraying them in revealing clothing, in chains, and completely helpless to Jabba. This is seen throughout the film industry. A significant example is Taken, directed by Pierre Morel. There is a scene that shows the repercussions of women who are taken while abroad and forced into human trafficking.
#Jabba #HeroicIntervention #RuleroftheGalacticUnderworld #Monsters
Lucas, George, Richard Marquand. Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi. Twentieth Century Fox, 1983.
Besson, Luc, and Robert Mark Kamen. Taken. 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment, 2008.


Hack 1

Due to the irregularity of what was seen at the circus it allowed for a growth of entertainment stemming from relegating on those who appeared different. Robert Huddleston otherwise known as “Pony Boy” was one of those, as he suffered a very advance form of ‘back knee deformity’. In 1895 Robert Huddleston was born and for his entire life he was succumbed to walking around on all four limbs. Even though he was afflicted by this it had absolutely no affect on his work ethic. Growing up he had chores and would pull logs fifteen miles with wood and leather fastened to his hands for better grip. Today is a modern day circus. The key difference being society masks the societal and interpersonal deformities we have hereby classifying us as “equal”. In Robert Huddleston’s narrative people were left exposed for their differences and labeled freaks. Now, people are left in less than opportune circumstances with large obstacles and told everyone is equal. Robert Huddleston’s is considered the “Other” like many of the people performing at the circus. The show called Cirque du Soleil is a modern day representation of the circus as it presents people as a spectacle for the audience. “Although such commercial exhibits of physical difference may seem offensive by today’s norms, Lottie Barber and her comrades at the sideshow were unfailingly pragmatic about their unusual bodily capital, viewing their own physical limitations as an opportunity to make a living in a society that might otherwise shun them.” Circus Age

#Differences #CircusLife #Other #HardWorking

Photo source: https://www.thehumanmarvels.com/?s=pony+boy