Hack #6 Baby Boom before the Hip-Hop

Hip Generation X & and the Baby Boom Generation

The Hip Hop generation is are African Americans that are born between 1965 and 1984 these are the children that are growing up in post segregated America. This generation suffers from belligerent racism unable to find jobs or be accepted by others for the color of their skin. The 1970s brought us the beginning of Rap and with that started a revolution of rap culture. This generation uses hip-hop as a form of expression to tell their life stories through music. A generation that founded hip-hop and gave it its wings to flourish into a genre that exemplifies elf expression (Pratt). While the Hip Hop music was very new and generation x was dated to start in 973 the founders are very notable baby boomers. Baby Boomers are a generation that went through of a lot of trials and through that they have created a generation filled with inventions. One of these breaking points was when Run DMC founders of generation X and also part of the baby boomer generation. This group was the first hip-hop act to earn a deal with that major brand like Adidas. Through their song, My Adidas hit American Airwaves across the country and brought the light to Rap culture (Pratt ). 

 

The greatest generation refers to those born in the years 1910 to 1924. For those belonging to the greatest generation, they were able to experience a time before the great depression, however, were the ones had the youngest years trying to survive during the great depression that lasted from 1929 to 1930 (Pumphrey). The great depression was an economic turmoil that affected the United States and parts of Europe leaving the western world in the longest depression it has suffered. The greatest generation not only had to preserve through the great depression but the effects of war in particularly World War II (Pumphrey). The greatest generation can be credited for much of the movements that led to human rights such as the women’s suffrage movement and the black panther movement that baby boomers are credited for. Knowing this the greatest generation is a generation that has charities of personal responsibility, duty, and faith (Pumphrey). 

 

Pratt, Robin Mellery. “Run-D.M.C.’s ‘My Adidas’ and the Birth of Hip Hop Sneaker Culture.” The Business of Fashion, 18 July 2014, http://www.businessoffashion.com/articles/video/run-d-m-c-s-adidas-birth-hip-hop-sneaker-culture.
Pumphrey, Clint. “How the Greatest Generation Works.” HowStuffWorks, HowStuffWorks, 23 May 2011, people.howstuffworks.com/culture-traditions/generation-gaps/greatest-generation.htm.

Hack #5 Hip-Hop Power

For my hack # 5 I want to talk about the political power of rap from talking about police brutality to the drug culture.

NWA

The song N.W.A Fuck Tha Police comes from a time where black men could be just walking and be stopped by the police and checked without being read their rights and if you refuse that would be considered a crime.  The members of N.W.A were speaking from the heart the feel the anger and pain of their people of compton so the lyrics were truly coming from home. While today is no different we are still hearing about white police shooting black men on the streets and The Game ( who is also from compton just like NWA) made a song on the same topic but in way that was not so violent. Illustrating that we can all use our words in a more peaceful matter.

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Usually people open these types of discussions with today is the best time to be politically vocal. However, in my opinion now and yesterday has always been the right time to be politically active. In the genre of Rap where your voice alone is your tool. Today rap culture does heavily talk about drugs such as lean which is a mixed of promethazine codeine, sprite soda, and candy  for flavor. This drug was mentioned in over 30% of billboard 100 hits in 2017 alone. Even though drugs are heavily mentioned there are rappers fighting the cause. Lil Xan a rapper that recently became famous for his song “Betrayed” this single describes how being involved in xanax another heavily used drug in the streets will destroy you “Xans don’t make you,Xans gon’ take you,Xans gon’ fake you,Xans gon’ betray you” (Lil Xan). Ironically his name comes from being on Xan 24/7 which he says he no longer uses and profusely asks his fans not to either. Since the real name of the rapper is Diego he promises to change is name permanently to Diego for his second mixtape to be release this year. This past year we have lost a bright artist named Lil Peep to a overdosed on xanax and it only brings the conversation of what drugs really do. Rappers such as Lil Uzi Vert have stated because of Lil Peep death they will quit using xanax causing many of his and Lil Peep followers to do so as well.

 

https://genius.com/Nwa-fuck-tha-police-lyrics

https://genius.com/Lil-xan-betrayed-lyrics

https://genius.com/Lil-peep-better-off-dying-lyrics

https://genius.com/Lil-uzi-vert-xo-tour-llif3-lyrics

Hack #4 Protest Song

Title: Chains

Artist: Usher

Featuring: Nas & Bibi Bourelly
Produced By: Paul Epworth
Written By: Bibi Bourelly, Nas & Usher
Release Date: October 22, 2015

Lyrics

[Intro: Child]
With liberty and justice for all
J-j-j-justice for all?

[Verse 1: Bibi Bourelly (Usher) Together ]
I’mma get mine, you should get yours too
Shooting, shooting, shooting, man them boys always shoot
(American dream, American man too)
Shooting, shooting, shooting, watch them boys always shoot
(And I-I-I-I been so tired of being insecure
So tired of)
I’ve had enough running
Running, and running and running and running
(Running)
Running, and running and running and running and
(Running enough)
Just give it up
I don’t give a fuck
I’ve had enough
Y’all give a fuck? No
Light it on fire
I’ve had enough
Running, and running and running and running
Running, and running and running and running and

[Hook: Usher & Bibi Bourelly]
You act like the change
Tryna put me in chains
Don’t act like you saving us
It’s still the same
Man don’t act like I made it up
You blaming us
Let’s keep it one hundred
You gave the name to us
Nigga
We still in chains
We still in chains
We still in chains
We still in chains
We still in chains
We still in chains
We still in chains
You put the shame on us

[Post-Hook: Usher & Bibi Bourelly]
Now, now, now shame on us
Now
Now, now, now shame on us
Now, now, now

[Verse 2: Usher (Bibi Bourelly) Together]
Moment of silence
American school and we in church too (Don’t shoot)
Shooting, shooting, shooting, we the prey
Always shoot (Prey)
I’mma be trill, you should be trill too
You don’t even gotta talk we just shoot
And I feel so tired of being insecure
Just give it up
Don’t give a fuck
Light it on fire

[Verse 3: Nas]
Yeah, yo check
I am Sugar Ray Robinson, Booker T. Washington
W. E. B. Du Bois, I’m the modern one
Yelling at Senators, Presidents, Congressmen
We got a problem that needs some acknowledgement
I am no prison commodity, not just a body you throw in a cell
For any reason, just to bother me
Just for your quota, so it’s rest in peace to Sean Bell
Sleep in peace Eric Garner (Sandra)
Every street, every corner
Conspiracy, new world order
I spoke to Tamir Rice mom and she told me “be strong”
It won’t be long ’til it’s justice
They won’t have votes but refuse the discussion
On how certain cops they shoot us for nothing
Revolution is coming

[Hook: Usher (Nas) Together]
You act like the change
(The land of opportunity)
Tryna put me in chains
(The land of Unity)
Don’t act like you saving us
(Brotherhood, trust)
It’s still the same
(America)
Man don’t act like I made it up
You blaming us
(You know)
Let’s keep it one hundred
You gave the name to us
Nigga
We still in chains
(Hey so what up my nigga?)
We still in chains
We still in chains
You see these chains?
We still in chains
I can’t see
We still in chains
The difference from how we used to be
We still in chains
We still in chains
You put the shame on us

[Post-Hook: Usher & Bibi Bourelly]
Now, now, now shame on us
Now
Now, now, now shame on us
Now, now, now
You put the shame on us)

[Outro: Usher]
We still in chains
We still in chains
We still in chains
We still in chains
We still in chains
We still in chains
We still in chains

You put the shame on us

usher-chains

Usher Raymond IV is a very world renown artist with several hot songs most notable work is the Confessions album. Usher has been around in the music industry since his teen years. The artists as seen in his confessions album knows how to uprise his voice to detail personal experiences such as heartbreak and social issues. On his 2015 track chains is a response to the current police brutality epidemic. In the music video, there is the face did those who were murdered by police wrongly.

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This method of using both lyrics and the images of the those who actually died is very smart. Usher having lyrics such as we are still in chains is a reference to how much black people in America are still suffering due to their race. The most real and disturbing part of the song is the part where the actual names of those who died are said and through the power of rhyme, their deaths are retold. Eric Garner was choked to death and Sandra had supposedly died in police custody while “sleeping” (still a mystery) so when Nas says sleep in peace it has a definite meaning.

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This song, in general, is a homage to the very much present Black lives matter movement. This is a national protest to the way black lives are treated by mostly white supremacy that allows for the casual deaths and ignorance of black issues such as the Flint Michigan water crisis. This water crisis is killing many black lives as the area where there is a lack of clean water is inhabited by African Americans. Even though chains are mostly at the mention of police brutality which is something that is a part of the black lives matter protests. For instance the Ferguson riots. This was the result of the fatal shooting on Michael Brown where the police officer Darren Wilson wasn’t indicted. After the announcement not just in Ferguson but millions of Americans stood in alliance with the black lives matter movement in honor of Brown and his family.

 

HACK #3 Acculturation

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Scarlett Johansson as Motoko Kusanagi             Motoko Kusanagi in Ghost in the shell Anime In Ghost in the Shell ( 2017)                                  (1995)

Due to the sad reality that Hollywood is at times in terms of casting there are mishaps in having usually White people play the role of a person of color. In these roles people are in a position of power like the director Rupert Sanders could have easily held casting for Asian women or specifically Japanese women to play this iconic Japanese character. Ghost in the Shell adaptation had given a lot of people hope to see Asian American women are in a feature-length film here in America. Scarlett Johansson is a white A-list actress she has the position to make he stance or voice clear about cultural appropriation and whitewashing in Hollywood. Even the production team have stated they would edit Johansson to appear more Asian (Berman). Ghost in the shell started off as a popular Japanese manga series and had an animated adaptation that was in Japanese and featured the original Japanese characters. The American film adaptation was meant with rage as the casting came as a shock to many to see a white woman getting the role of a Japanese superhero. When Hollywood does do the right thing in terms of such as Claudia Kim as Helen Cho a super intelligent scientist from South Korea in Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015) there is a celebration. I feel that many times whitewashing and the two yellow face examples of Mr. Yunioshi and Apu are examples of a huge racial issue in Hollywood.

Starring_Mickey_Rooney

Mickey Rooney as Mr. Yunioshi in “Breakfast at the Tiffany” (1961)

There is nothing new about the discrimination Asians have often been subjected to in playing supporting roles filled or with stereotypes such as Apu in the Simpsons. The worst to me is when the yellow face is considered ok like Mickey Rooney portrayal of a Japanese landlord in Breakfast at the Tiffany. Rooney role in such a classic film has to be one of the worst aspects of the film the man literally adorns buck teeth, squints his eyes, and has his skin darkened. Rooney has no regrets over the role and even states in an article that “”Never in all the more than 40 years after we made it — not one complaint. Every place I’ve gone in the world people say, ‘ … you were so funny.’ Asians and Chinese come up to me and say, ‘Mickey you were out of this world.'”(Magagnini).

Hank-Azaria-and-Apu-from-The-Simpsons

Apu voice actor Hank Azaria in “The Simpsons” (1989-now)

Apu is voiced in the animated series the Simpsons by actor Hank Azaria. In his interview on “the late show” with host Stephen Colbert Azaria says he has remorse over the negativity that his character Apu has caused others. Due to the character having so many negative aspects such as being greedy, stingy, and in an article by Matt Morrison of screen Rant there has been many who have faced racism or been marginalized due to the character Apu (Morrison).

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Taylor Swift dressed up as Rapper in her “Shake It off ” Music Video (2014)

My opinion correlates with an excerpt from a selection from Cannibal Culture: Art, Appropriation, & the Commodification of Difference by Deborah Root (1996). In this reading, the author writes how capitalizing can be a driving force for constant cultural appropriation in order to draw more audiences. I believe these people do not want to actually give jobs of significant characters like Motoko to the right actor due to bias and racism but also so they can draw in bigger crowds due to the fame of Johannson name. The actors can either feel remorse in these roles or feel like Rooney that the made people laugh at there wasn’t anything wrong with it because of the critical acclaim of their portrayal. However, everything that is shown in media from White girls dresses as hip-hop Stars like Taylor Swift shake it off or Kim Kardashian accrediting Bo Derek a white woman for her hairstyle cornrows from her film “10” on her snapchat, even though both are part of African American culture.  To the those who appropriate may pretend they are just not educated enough will have to realize that with power comes influence and what they do no matter how small will an effect on someone.

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Kim Kardashians Snapchat (2018) vs Bo Derek in “10” (1979)

Citations:

Berman, Eliza. “Ghost in the Shell 2017 Controversy: A Comprehensive Guide.” Time, Time, 29 Mar. 2017, time.com/4714367/ghost-in-the-shell-controversy-scarlett-johansson/.

Magagnini, Stephen. “Mickey Rooney Upset at Racism Allegations.” DeseretNews.com, Deseret News, 7 Sept. 2008, www.deseretnews.com/article/700256494/Mickey-Rooney-upset-at-racism-allegations.html.

Morrison, Matt. “The Simpsons Has No Plans to Retire or Recast Apu.” Screen Rant, Screen Rant, 29 July 2018, screenrant.com/simpsons-apu-retire-recast-no-plans-matt-groening/.

Root, Deborah. “: Cannibal Culture: Art, Appropriation, and the Commodification of Difference.” American Anthropologist, vol. 98, no. 4, 8 Feb. 1996, pp. 920–921., doi:10.1525/aa.1996.98.4.02a00670.

Early American Cinema Project : Within Our Gates (1920).

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Title: Within Our Gates

Genre: Silent, Indie, Black and White, Romance, Drama

Format: 35mm bw

Runtime: 75 minutes

Release date: January 12, 1920 (USA)

Director: Oscar Micheaux

Producer: Oscar Micheaux

Screenplay: Oscar Micheaux

Languages: Silent

Within Our Gates.avi_snapshot_00.01.31_[2014.12.09_22.17.07]

Film Within Our Gates by writer and producer Oscar Micheaux a pioneer of the African American Cinema was release in 1920 on January 12th. This film is the earliest known film to be directed by an African American. American films in the 1920s  were shown in the Nickelodeon theaters define in the book Celebrity Culture and the American Dream by Karen Sternheimer these theaters request just a nickel to enter. To note in the 1920s were rampant with excessive racism that is an outcome of integrated racism in the American system. This movie was actually released only a few months after the violent Chicago race riots the director works to depict the “rape, lynchings, and the devastated lives of poor sharecroppers caused national controversy” (Sheppard, 2015). Even in cinema though much progress is still being made today racism is still halting people from acquiring work due to prejudice beliefs of the industry. In the Celebrity Culture and the American Dream, the author notes that the film industry was still hard for everyone as those at the bottom were still underpaid, overworked, and looked down upon. This is correlated with the fact that the economy had most people poor and to watch a movie only cost a nickel or less. The movie industry would also give fewer jobs to non-white actors and would pay little to nothing to the non-white actors they hired. Oscar Micheaux an African American worked to combat the blatant racism in the industry by hiring black people to make movies with him. To note the star actress in this film Evelyn Preer plays a character named Sylvia Landry is both a black and a woman and with that in mind, she has been quoted not take traditional roles allotted to both women and black people. The exploration of Female actor Audrey Hepburn shows how even with the amount of work and accolades she has received her notoriety is based on her beauty, In the History 110  blog the entry by Jordan Werth. Landry wanted her films to have more of a commentary on social issues her character in Within our Gates fights for education rights of African Americans. This movie Within Our Gates is not just a film but a core as it looks to revolutionize the African American cinema. The film was hard to find or watch though due to the racism of the nation due to this the movie was actually resurfaced in 1990 titled “La Negra” the Spanish title is because the film was found in Spain. As a result of the film was copied and sent to be reserved by the American Congress due to the fact this film depicted 1920s black America in the south and the start of African American cinema.

The character Sylvia Landry deals with a variety of conflict from her lover, her sister and the city of Chicago. The movie opens with the character moving from the south to Chicago to meet with her cousin Alma Prichard who was recently divorced. Cornard Drebert is the fiance of Sylvia and at the beginning, he is located in Brazil he communicates with Landry through telegraph. Connard telegraphs are actually not seen by Sylvia but her cousin Alma instead. Alma is motivated by her jealousy of her cousins relationship and her love for Cornard to try to intervene in their relationship by destroying Cornard telegraphs and lies of betrayal on Sylvia end. Alma wins this as Connor makes an appearance he strangles his beloved and swiftly ends his engagement to her. Sylvia, however, is motivated by her heartbreak to work at a black school in the south for the poor. This introduces her employer Reverend Wilson Jacobs and his Sister Constance who run the school but unfortunately are unable to financially keep it afloat. Sylvia goes north again to Boston this time in order to find a sponsor for the school. Sylvia runs into trouble due to her heroic deeds of saving a little boy from a car owned by a wealthy woman by the name of Elena Warwick. At this point in the film, Sylvia has not completed her quest of earning money for the school through the rich in Boston. However, the situation gives Sylvia a chance to tell Warwick of her goals to help a school for back in the south. Warwick is at first convinced but later backs out due to her friend a white woman named Geraldine Stratton. Stratton is disgusted with the idea that black children are even educated and the idea of black women being able to vote. Warwick filled with the blatant racism of her friend and many others of her social classes and race feel refuses to help Sylvia. For historical context, black people were forced to take jobs that were labor based because access to an education was difficult to come by.  The story has a change of events from Warwick’s sie as she does eventually send money but not just the five grand Sylvia asked for but an additional forty-five thousand.

When Sylvia is back in the south again and with that comes her family drama with Alma and her Alma stepbrother Larry Prichard. A character that Michaux uses is shown through Sylvia love life to depict that black men have the capabilities of being more than field workers, as she falls in love with a black doctor named Doctor V. Vivian. Vivian is a character in a black film that can be assessed to be the opposite of the stereotype. Vivian is the opposite of a stereotype character like Larry an uneducated gangster with little contributes to society. The doctor is one an educated man with the mission a to help improve and save black lives. Back in her trip to Boston Landry purse was stolen but retrieved the man that would fall in love with her as well named Dr. Vivian. Larry is introduced to us as he’s feeling from the police from his recent come of killing a man during a card game. Larry blackmails Sylvia into giving him the fifty grand or he will disclaim to the school her past of being the adopted child of poor black people. With Larry being who he is during an act of crime he gets shot in the north to which he is treated by Doctor Vivian. These two plus Alma discuss Sylvia while at Almas home. Sylvia pass contained so many themes of hatred. The Landry raised a smart girl and Sylvia used her knowledge to help her father get the money he was owed by his employer. While Mr. Landry met with his boss another employee came to shoot the boss and this was news traveled fast. The facts were wrong Mr. Landry a black man was accused of killing his white boss and was in turn lynched by a white lynch mob. The lynch mob had trouble located the Landrys at first as her family hid in the swamps. Eventually found Sylvia mother and father were lynched and burned at the stake her brother Emil was able to escape alive. Sylvia was almost raped by her fathers boss brother Armand. During the rape, Armand realized that Sylvia he is the biological daughter from a scar on her breast. Due to this realization, Armand left and was a major part in Sylvia life because he worked to pay for her education however he never told Sylvia he was her father. Sylvia was raised by black parents however she herself was the outcome of a black woman and her white father Armand. Even with the knowledge of Sylvia beginning Dr. Vivian still loves her and chooses to marry her. Dr. Vivian a black man in a racist society points that even with the obstacles that we as black people face we are still a nation too proud of. I find this lens that Oscar Micheaux explores in this work to be brilliant the writer wants us the audience to see life through variant struggles that we must first accept of later overcome. Racism is that in itself as a society and in the film industry there is work to be done where artists that have the privilege to explore should explore the lives of the discriminated in order to make a change. This goes for Women in media as well as Michaux chooses a female as the protagonist in order to show how strong and prevailing women can be outside of traditional roles dedicated to topics such as beauty.  

Citations:

Sheppard, Samantha. “Within Our Gates.” Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Cornell Cinema, 2 Sept. 2014, cinema.cornell.edu/Fall2015/within_our_gates.html.

Sternheimer, Karen. Celebrity Culture and the American Dream. New York, Routledge, 2015.

Werth, Jordan. “Macrohack/Microessay.” HACK It!, 9 May. 2015, https://hackintohistory.org/2015/05/09/macrohackmicroessay/

Within Our Gates. Dir. Oscar Micheaux. Kino Lorber Edu, 1920. Kanopy. Web. 20 Jul. 2018.

Within Our Gates.avi_snapshot_01.17.58_[2014.12.09_23.36.25]

Photos:

https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0011870/

http://www.acinemahistory.com/2014/12/within-our-gates-1920.html

The Flim:

https://sdsu.kanopy.com/video/within-our-gates-0

 

Hack#2 Flim Bodies

jawbreaker-movie-590x398

Jawbreaker is a 1999 American film directed by Darren Stein. The movie release date was January 30 and is categorized as a black comedy film. The film genre black comedy is a style that draws laughs from dark topics. In the case of this film follows the outcome of an exclusive high school girl clique who accidentally killed one of their members. The director Stein has stated that the title jawbreaker is a representation of the contrasting sides of the girls as they appear sweet like candy but have partaken in the death of their friend. The character that is killed is Liz Purr a super popular high school teenager who gets kidnaped on her birthday by her best friends Courtney Shayne, Marcie Fox, and Julie Freeman. Liz first asleep to where she gets awaken with a Jawbreaker gagged in her mouth and Liz is also tied up in just her underwear then thrown in the back trunk. Unfortunately, her friends were only intending to pull a prank on her 17th birthday to which they do annually but Courtney idea of the jawbreaker had killed Liz has she choked to death. The movie uses the character Julie as a protagonist as she finds the behavior of Courtney and Marcie to be wrong to continuously put the blame of others in order to deflect the blame of Liz death. Julie partners with Zack Tartak in order to work against Courtney and her schemes as they try to uncover what really happened with Liz.  When discovering Liz has died there is another girl in the room Fern Mayo. Due to Fern being deemed as uncool and Courtney originally using her as a lackey to do her homework they give Fern a deal of becoming a popular girl in return for staying quiet about Liz. In order to be considered cool at this school, the girls are often highly sexualized so Fern makeover into the persona Vylette was just an example of that. Courtney and Marcie may have taken their makeover too far as Vylette uses her sex appeal to become the most popular girl in school and compete for prom queen taking Courtney thrown in the school hierarchy. Vylette has taken over and this has to infuriate Courteney to see her creation out eclipse her to which she destroys Vylette reputation with her old identity Fern. Julie and Zack take Fern in and have her help them in their path to take Courtney down. Sex is used as a weapon for the female characters Courtney actually pits the blame on the men she sleeps with in order to not take the fall for Liz death. The women and Men in this movie mostly fall into typical gender roles such as Zack being highly masculine and Courtney using her womanhood as a weapon. The film does have a highly sensual scene such as Zack and Julie first kiss scene. I think the actions of Courtney really showed that high school rank should never be taken as far as killing your best friend.
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The article “Film Bodies: Gender, Genre, and Excess” by Linda Williams makes a point that I think Jawbreaker is a filed with sensations from Liz last birthday morning to the metal break down of the character Fern to the big reveal at Prom that Courtney had killed Liz. Flims like this brings sensations for use because we are put on the edge or brought back into our own emotions. I find highly emotional scenes to be favorite because it makes the movie have more meaning Jawbreaker opens with a friendship that Liz, Marcie, Julie, Courtney have and ends with Fern stating what are friends in high school.

Hack #1 The Circus and The Other

The idea that a man dressed as a woman can be considered funny is a shame on the way society views binary individuals. In sense dressing up as the other to make an audience laugh is nothing new. One part of American history is the coon caricature. The coon caricature is when Non-African American dresses up as an African American with black face. This “costume” is often exaggerated with prosthetics to depict features non-blacks would deem as ugly such as a flat nose or protruded lips. These performers earn money through making fun of black people in a damaging matter. Coon caricature is not just performance based though there are artists that make dolls and postcards for those whole love the depictions of blacks in an unfavorable matter. The Old Zip Coon is a coon caricature of a dandy black man who dresses fancy but is illiterate, dim-witted, and is often depicted in some sort of trouble. This character was for a white man to make fun of black people in a time where black people were starting to gain some social inputs. The zip coon was to show a black man that thought he was as smart as whites and was satisfy those upset with the recent freedom of blacks during a post Civil war time. In cinema, there are characters like Stepin Fetchit who was an actual black man playing a dim-witted and lazy subservient to whites. The Coon character today is mostly used as an insult to black people other blacks believe to be a servant to White people. Often a Black person who has a very anti-black attitude in life. In the news right now you can see public figures like Kanye West or Candace Owens.

So defining the other in society is one that is considered the opposing culture, race, culture, gender, sexuality region etc. Often times the other in American Culture history is treated poorly. Looking at the way Native Americans, African Americans and today’s treatment of immigrants illustrates there is an issue with how the other is treated. In the work Encountering The Other, The author notes how other cultures that oppose the caucasian narrative or normative are considered inferior. Due to the fact that one does not fit into the narrative of the majority puts them in a place to be often ridiculed. Take the circus culture the way that people with disabilities like being born with two heads or choosing to not fit into the status quo like a woman who grows out facial are considered laughable and used for monetary gain to ironically please the ones deemed normal. To me the ones working in the circus we considered the other because of their looks or abilities, not the trade itself.  There can be a flipside to this often times when considered the other it is hard to survive especially when being a child with a disability often meant being a burden to one’s family. Finding a home with the circus to be supported by others deemed not fit by society can be a positive gain. Knowing that those in the circus are making money (however little) off of the those laughing is ironic in itself the circus performer is the one getting the last laugh.

 

Image link #1 : http://emuseum.ringling.org/emuseum/objects/34796/ole-zip-coon?ctx=350e17be-8c02-4496-ad7a-7c0c070bf0d8&idx=0

 

Image link #2 :

http://emuseum.ringling.org/emuseum/objects/8949/barnum–bailey-evetta-lady-clown?ctx=7a8d944a-e4b9-4387-bb1a-f5832d925116&idx=5

 

Kornfeld, Eve. Encountering “the Other”: American Intellectuals and Indians in the 1790s. 1995.